Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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E

East Indies ( 112 )
(SEE ALSO: Asia; Australia; Indian Ocean; Pacific Ocean; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippine Islands)
1634 Herbert, T.
1644 Van der Hagen, S.
1686 Tachard, G.
1704 Tappe, D.
1754 Renard, L.
1773 Bernardin de St.-Pierre, J.H.
1780 Herbert & Michelson
1811 Marsden, W.
x 1820 Diard & Duvaucel (DD; Singapore; 160.)
x 1820a Home, E. (DD; Sumatra; m145.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; Singapore; m174, 180.)
x 1821a Home, E. (DD; Sumatra; m268.)
1821 Raffles, T.S.
1835 Raffles, T.S. (DD; Singapore)
1838 Unienville, M.C.A.M. d'
x 1838 Waterhouse, G.R. (DD; Sumatra; 35.)
1839 Rigg, J. (Mioc., Java)
1845 Brumund, J.F.G. (DD; Aru Islands)
1846 Cantor, T.E. (DD; Malaysia)
1862 Galvano, A.
1867 Rosenberg, C.B.H.v (DD; Aru Islands)
x 1869a Bickmore, A.S. (DD; Aru Islands; 244.)
x 1869b Bickmore, A.S. (DD; Aru Islands; 182.)
1875 Milne-Edwards, A.
1889 Jacobsen (DD; Indonesia)
1895 Ridley, H.W. (Malay Peninsula)
1900 Flower, S.S. (DD)
1901b Finsch, O.
x 1905 Linstow, O.v. (DD; Penang; nematode Ascaris halicoris; m258.)
1905 Pitot, A.
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; Coral Sea, 49; Malay Archipelago, 63-64.)
1907 Gardiner, J.S.
x 1908 Hanitsch, R. (DD from Borneo; in capt., Singapore, in 1895; 13.)
1909 Fauvel, A.A.
1910 Fryer, J.C.F.
1925 Chasen, F.N. (DD; Singapore)
1929 Dammermann, K.W. (DD; Boeroe Is.)
1931 Banks, E.A.
1938 Asano, N.
1939 Hirasaka, K.
1947 Tate, G.H.H.
1951 Delsman, H.C.
x * 1952 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (Indosiren javanensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Mioc., Java; 610-612.)
1956 Holme, T.K. (Malaya)
1959 Apaiwongs, C.
x * 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; 149-151.)
x 1965 Harrisson, T. (DD; Borneo, Sabah; status; 103.)
1965 Medway, L.
1966 Harrison, J.L. (DD; Singapore)
1969 De Silva, G.S. (Sabah)
1969 Dupon, J.F.
1970 Bland, G.C.
x 1971 Almeida, A. de (DD; Timor; legends; 209, 211-212, 220.)
1971 Chin, L. (Sarawak)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr.; 308-309.)
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Indonesia; need for survey; 18-19.)
1974 Langham, N.P.E. (DD; Malaysia)
1974a MacVeigh, W.P.
x 1974b Macveigh, W.P. (DD; Johore Strait; Bland's [1970] report; 117.)
x 1974 Morton, B.S. (DD; Johore Strait; challenges Bland's [1970] report; 172.)
1974 Phillipps, C. (DD; Sabah)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; 33-48.)
1976 Langham, N.P.E. (DD; Malaysia)
x 1976 Tas'an (DD from Sulawesi; in capt., Jakarta; 1-12.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (DD; Indochina & New Caledonia; 290-291.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; Celebes, Luzon, Mulgrave & Thursday Islands; 301-303.)
x 1978 Taylor, D. (DD; Sumatra; tears used as aphrodisiac; 203-213.)
1978 Tweedie, M.W.F. (DD)
x 1979 Budiarso et al. (DD; Sulawesi; nasal parasites; 568.)
1979 Irwandi & Jarman (DD; Indonesia)
x 1979 Kamiya et al. (DD; Sulawesi; organ weights; 129-131.)
x 1979 Miyazaki et al. (DD; Sulawesi; metals & organochlorines in tissues; 125-126.)
x * 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Indonesia; distr., capture, & captive maintenance; 1-30.)
x 1980 Blair, D. (DD; Indonesia; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 512-513.)
* 1980 Compost, A. (DD; Aru Islands)
x 1981b Blair, D. (DD; Indonesia; parasitic flukes; 15.)
x * 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; distr.; 10-18.)
1984a Salm & Usher (DD; Indonesia)
1984b Salm & Usher (DD; Indonesia)
x 1987 Whitten et al. (DD; Sulawesi; distr.; 208-209.)
1988d Anon. (DD; Singapore)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Singapore, Malaysia; 22-25.)
1989 Petocz, R.G. (DD; Irian Jaya)
1989 Chambers & Bani (DD; Vanuatu)
1990 Sigurdsson & Yang (DD; Singapore)
x * 1990 Sigurdsson & Yang (DD; Singapore; 25-29, 33-34.)
x * 1991 Pietsch, T.W. (mermaid painting by S. Fallours probably based on a dugong from Ambon; 1-25.)
x 1992 Whitten & Whitten (DD; Indonesia; pop. acc.; 60-61.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (DD; South Sulawesi; stomach contents; 229-233.)
x 1993 Marsh et al. (DD; Oceania; conservation; 232-234.)
x 1994 Ho et al. (DD; Singapore; gen. acc.; 249.)
x 1994 Kemper et al. (DD; Sulawesi; heavy metals, organochlorines; 131-133, 135, 137.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (DD; distr. & status; 161, 163.)
x 1994 Payne & Francis (DD; Borneo; gen. acc.; 291.)
x 1995 De Iongh, Wenno & Meelis (DD; Ambon, Indonesia; seagrasses & grazing; 1-19.)
x 1995 De Iongh, Wenno et al. (Lease Islands, Indonesia; aerial survey; 759-761.)
x 1995 Knappert, J. (Malaysia, Indonesia, Manus Islands; legends of origin of dugong; 68.)
1996 De Iongh, H.H. (DD; Aru, Indonesia)
1996 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; in capt.; food preferences)
x 1996 Blaszkiewitz & Reinhard (DD; in capt., Surabaya; 878-881.)
1996 De Iongh, H.H. (DD; Aru, Indonesia; status)
1996 Persoon & De Iongh (DD; Indonesia)
1996 Reinhard, R. (TMM, Singapore; DD, Jakarta, Surabaya; in capt.; 22-24.)
x 1997 Beasley & Jefferson (DD; Borneo; distr.; 194, 202, 204, pl. 34.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia, Lease Islands; behavior; 71-77.)
1998 De Iongh et al. (DD; Lease Islands, Indonesia)
x 1999 Abdullah, M.K. (DD; in capt., Malaysia; release policy; 8.)
1999 De Iongh, H.H. (DD; Indonesia; marine reserves)
2001 Chua et al. (DD; Singapore; in capt.)
2001 Chua et al. (DD, in capt.; Singapore)
2006 Rajamani et al. (DD; Sabah, Malaysia; indigenous use and trade)
2013 Rajamani, L. (DD; Sulu Sea, Malaysia; community knowledge & conservation)
Ecology: SEE Behavior; Community Ecology; Food; Food Plants; Insect Control; Migration and Movements; Natural Enemies; Paleoecology; Parasites; Parasitology; Pollution, Effects of; Population Biology; Salinity Tolerance; Temperature, Effects of; Weed Control ( 0 )
Economic Uses ( 230 )
(SEE ALSO: Archeological Sites, Sirenia at; Hunting and Capture; Medicinal Applications; Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance; Weed Control)
x 1665 Rochefort, C. de (TMM; Antilles; hide, meat; 194-195.)
x 1666 La Barre, A. (TMM; Guianas; meat obtained by French, English, & Dutch; 14.)
x 1667 Rochefort, C. de (TMM; Antilles; hide, meat; 391-394.)
1678 Exquemelin, A.O.
x * 1735 Vieira, A. (Trichechus; Amazonia, Brazil; >20 shiploads/year exported, ca. 1658; 26.)
x 1743 Barrere, P. (TMM; French Guiana; meat; 161-162.)
1746 Barbot, J.
1762 Queirós, J. de S.J. (TI; Brazil; fat)
1764 Soimonov, F.I. (HG; hide used for boats)
x 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (Trichechus; South & Central America & Antilles; 57-59.)
x 1785 Bondaroy, A.D.F. de (Trichechus; hide; 30-32.)
x 1790 Andrada e Silva, J.B. de (Trichechus; Amazonia, Brazil; exports, 17th century; 389.)
x 1826 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu (TMM; Brazil; oil, bone; 603.)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (TI; Brazil; oil, meat, 1122; mixira, 1123.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; hide, 99, 112-113; meat, 112; tusks, 113.)
x 1836 Smyth & Lowe (TI; Peru; meat; scapula used for spade; 243.)
1837 Williams, J.L.
x 1838 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Orinoco R.; meat, fat, oil, hide; whips; 9.)
x 1847 Edwards, W.H. (TI; meat, hide, bone; 187.)
x 1851 Gosse, P.H. (TMM; Jamaica; meat; 345, 348-349.)
x 1853 Herndon, W.L. (TI; Peru, meat, oil, 158, 164; Santarem, Brazil, 1843 & 1846, meat, oil, 300.)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (TI; meat, oil; 186-187, 460-461.)
x 1855a Gervais, P. (TI; ranching proposed; 116.)
1856 Noronha, J.M. de (TI; Brazil; fat)
x 1857 Fairholme, J.K.E. (DD; Australia; meat, fat, oil; 353.)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TS; meat, fat, bone, hide; m99.)
1860 Bennett, G. (DD; Queensland)
1862 Wight, G. (DD; Queensland; oil)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (TI; hide, meat, oil; 1: 671-672, 2: 149, 156-157.)
1870 Anon. (DD; Australia; oil)
x 1871 Myers & Myers (TMM; Orinoco R.; oil, hide, meat, fat; 102.)
1872 Anon. (DD; Australia; oil)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; South America; meat, hide, oil; pop. acc.; 166.)
x 1874 Estacio da Silveira, S. (TMM; Maranhão, Brazil; food, medicine; 26-27.)
x 1874 Heriarte, M. de (Trichechus; Gurup , Brazil; exports, ca. 1662; 29.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (TI; hide, meat, oil; 2: 42, 187, 193-194.)
x 1876 Orton, J. (TI; oil, glue, meat; 477.)
1876 Thorne, E. (DD; Queensland; oil)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. (TML; Florida; sale of skins & skulls to museums; 1006.)
x 1881 Anon. (DD; Queensland; industry, 738-747; hide, 741; meat, fat, 741-742; bones, tusks, 742; oil, 742-743.)
x 1881a Nordenskiöld, A.E. (HG; Bering Is.; meat, 274-276; hide used for boats, 276-277; ribs used for sledge runners & carvings, 280.)
x * 1882 Faithful, P. (DD; Queensland; meat, oil, hide, 5-7, 9-11, 13, 15; commercial fishery, 11, 13.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (Trichechus; Americas; meat, hide, oil, bones, "stones" [ear bones]; 127-128.)
x 1885 Santa-Anna Nery, F.J. de (TI; Brazil; meat exported, 1881-82; 168.)
x 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (DD; meat, tanning of hide; m193.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (TMM; Tabasco, Mexico; hide, bones, meat; 357-358.)
1888 Ching, J.L. (DD; Queensland; oil)
x 1888 Hart, H.C. (DD; hide; used by Hebrews for sandals & Ark; 26-27.)
1888 Senior, W. (DD; Queensland)
x 1891 Costa e Silva, B. da (TI; Brazil; mixira; 94-95.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (DD; Australia; oil; 221.)
x 1891 Stuart, H.V. (TML; Florida; meat sold as beef in New York; 137.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Trichechus; Brazil; meat, hide, fat; 120.)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; Sri Lanka; meat, 98; fat, 99.)
x * 1895 Veríssimo, J. (TI, Brazil, meat, fat, hide, 38, 40, 55, 93, 96, 99-102, 117, 199; TMM, Brazil, meat, 99.)
x 1897 Loyau, G.E. (DD; Queensland; 365.)
x 1897 Sinclair, W.F. (DD; meat sold in London; m198.)
x 1899 Hunt, A.E. (DD; Torres Strait; meat; m13.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; hide, fat, meat; 200.)
1902 Ravenel, W. de C. (manatee leather; m349.)
x * 1903 Rodriguez Ferreira, A. (TI; Par , Brazil; meat, mixira, 170-171; tripe, fat, 171; tanning of hides, 173-174.)
1904 Stevenson, C.H. (Trichechus, DD; hide)
x 1905 Chermont de Miranda, V. (etymology of word "michira"; 62.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India; meat, oil; 242.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; tears, in perfume; 64.)
x 1909 Anon. (DD; hide, oil, meat, tusks; 93.)
x 1912 Harris, W.K. (DD; Australia; meat, oil, lard; 227-228.)
x 1915 Seale, A. (DD; Philippines; meat; m215.)
x 1917b Anon. (Trichechus; ranching for meat; 454.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (TML; Florida; meat, 338-339, 342-345; hide, 344-345; bone, oil, fat, 345; DD, hide, 344.)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (Trichechus; potential for commercial production of meat & other products; 698-705.)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; Panama; meat, 69-70; hide, 70.)
* 1922 Le Cointe, P. (TI; Brazil; statistics on export of mixira)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Red Sea; hide, tusks; 83.)
x 1923 Watson, E. (DD; China; oil; 103.)
x 1925 Bittencourt, A. (TI; Brazil; exploitation; 134-136.)
x 1925 Lee, I. (DD; Australia; meat; 19.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; fat, meat; 161, 182, 228, 234-235.)
x 1926 MacCreagh, G. (TI; Tiquié R., Brazil; marinated & smoked meat; 324.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; meat, hide, oil, fat, bones, tusks; 86-88.)
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; India; meat, viscera; 987.)
x 1931 Moraes, R. (TI; Brazil; mixira; 67.)
x 1931 Read, B.E. (?HG; China; hide, oil; 16.)
1933 Deraniyagala, P.E.P.
x 1934 Bittencourt, A. (TI; Brazil; mixira; 25.)
x 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Australia; trade in hunting charms, 240; meat, oil, 241-242, 250; butchering, 247-250, pls. 30-31.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Central America; "3 kinds of meat", oil, hide, stapes; 218.)
x 1935 Murie, A. (TMM; Belize; few brought to market; 30.)
x 1935 Sowerby, A. de C. (DD, China, tympanic bones, 81; ?HG, China, hide, oil, 82.)
x 1936 Moore, W.R. (DD; Australia; meat, oil, hide, bones; m746.)
1937 Promus, J. (DD; Australia; commercial hunting)
x 1937 Woods, F.J. (TS; Nigeria; professional hunting & price of meat; 23-27.)
x 1939 Beal, W.P.B. (TS; raising for meat, oil, & bones proposed; 125-126.)
x 1939a Moraes, R. (TI; Gurup , Brazil; exports, 17th century; 91.)
x 1940 Crouse, N.M. (TMM; West Indies, 17th century; m110.)
x 1940 Machado, F. de P. (TI; Brazil; meat; prices of hide; 246.)
x 1941 Landa, D. de (TMM; Yucatan; meat, fat; 16th century; 190-191.)
x * 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; meat, hide; 100-102, 153, 218, 65.)
x 1943 Jobim, J. (TI; Brazil; tinted hides; 178.)
x 1944 Morais Rêgo, A.R. de (TI; Brazil; meat, mixira, hide; commercial raising; 11-12.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; meat, mixira, fat, 55, 67-71, 82-85, 88-89, 91; "3 kinds of meat", 67; hide, 70, 82, 84-92; viscera, bones, 82.)
x 1945 Santos, E. (TI; Brazil; meat, fat, hide; 158-159.)
1947 Irvine, F.R. (TS)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; unrealized plan to raise manatees for meat during World War I; m189.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (TI; Brazil; meat, oil, hide; 325-327.)
x 1949 Jervis, J. (DD; Queensland; oil; 340.)
x 1949 Loveless, J.R. (DD; Queensland; oil; 8.)
x 1951 Aragon, F. (DD; Philippines; atlas, meat; 267-268.)
x 1953 White, T.E. (Trichechus; estimated to yield 70% usable meat; 398.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; bones, meat, lard, oil, hide; pop. acc.; 403-404.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; hide, bones, oil, 18; meat, 18-19.)
1957 Divin, V.A. (HG; Bering Is.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; oil; 12.)
x 1957 Meggers & Evans (TI; hunting & trading in 17th century; m570.)
x 1958 Savory, B. (DD; East Africa; oil, meat; 257.)
1959 Cilento & Lack (DD; Queensland; oil industry)
x 1960 Crusz, H. (DD; Sri Lanka; oil, meat, bones; 301-302.)
x 1960 Vúletin, A. (TMM; South America; meat; hide for thongs & thole-pins of boats; 124.)
x 1962 Sarkar & Mitra (DD; hide; m94.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; meat, weed control; 91-93.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (gen. acc.)
x 1963 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; India; oil; m152.)
x * 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; meat, tears, tusks; 150-151.)
1964 Weiss, K.
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; meat; hide for whips; 410.)
x 1966c Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; oil, meat; 222.)
x * 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; meat, oil, 80-81; bones, 80.)
x 1967 Carvalho, J.C. de M. (TI; Brazil; statistics; 26-27, 31, 33.)
x 1967 Fiuza Lima, F. (TI; Brazil; proposed captive breeding; 17-18.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; meat; 216-218.)
x 1967 Pirie, N.W. (sirs. as food source; 31.)
x * 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; oil, meat, hide, tusks; 1: 102-103, 106-107, 110, 2: 241-257.)
1967 Wing, E.S.
x * 1968a Bertram & Bertram (sirs. as food source, 385-386, 388-390, 393; other uses, 386, 388-389.)
x * 1968 Betz, J.J. (TML; Florida; manatee-farming scheme, ca. 1893; 204-209.)
x * 1968 Lack, C. (DD; Queensland; history of oil industry; 4-6.)
x 1969 Bibby, G. (DD; Abu Dhabi; meat; 224, 303-304, 306.)
x 1969 Gibson, J.R. (HG; Bering Is.; 29-31, 48, 51-52, 54.)
x 1970b Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; 363.)
x 1970 Yin, T. (DD; Burma; meat, fat; 327.)
1971 Ohama, N. (DD; Japan; hunted for tax payments)
x 1971 Almeida, A. de (DD; Timor; meat, hide, oil, teeth, tears; 212.)
x 1971a Barada, B. (TML; Florida; meat sold in restaurants as "imported from Africa"; 21.)
x 1971 Hall, E.S., Jr. (HG; Alaska; bone ?used as backing for cutting skins; 34.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; hide, meat, oil; 397.)
1971 Lange, F.W.
x 1971 Lima, D.C. (TI; Itacoatiara, Brazil; meat exported, 1968; 7.)
x 1972 Walker, K. (DD; Queensland; meat; 71, 73-74.)
1973 Bertram & Bertram (sirs.; meat, oil, hide, etc., 321-325, 333; "3 kinds of meat", 321.)
1973 Nietschmann, B. (TMM; Nicaragua)
1974 Jhingran & Gopalakrishnan
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; meat, fat, bones, hide; live animals for zoos & weed control; 13-14.)
x 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; Nigeria; ranching for meat; 469-470.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; "semicaptives" used for food; meat, tusks, tears; 35.)
x 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TMM; Nicaragua; meat, fat, hide, blood; 70, 75, 81.)
x 1976 Whitaker, Z. (DD; India; meat; 6.)
x 1977a Anon. (DD; South India; meat sold; 439.)
x 1977 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Abu Dhabi; meat; 4.)
x 1977c Domning, D.P. (TI; Brazil; sold as pets; 3.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; meat; 5-6.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; potential for meat production; 246.)
x 1977 Meggers, B.J. (TI; Brazil; raising for meat proposed; 49.)
x 1978 Campbell & Gicca (TMM; Mexico; meat seldom sold; 263.)
x 1978a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; yields 20-26% of body weight as usable meat + 4-5 gallons of oil; 30.)
1979 Byczkowska-Smyk, W.
x 1979 Hoch, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates, 3rd millennium B.C.; tusks not used, 600-601; 604.)
x 1979 Klein, E.H. (TMM; Honduras; meat; 23-24.)
x 1979 Pedley, I. (DD; Tin Can Bay, Queensland; oil industry; 231.)
x 1980 Ayres & Best (TI; Brazil; meat prices, hides; 83-85, 90-92.)
x 1980 Cumbaa, S.L. (TML; Florida; aboriginal use; 6, 8-9.)
1980 Wing & Scudder
x 1981 Chase, A. (DD; Australia; Aboriginal use & beliefs; 112-122.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (TI, TMM; Brazil; meat, fat, hide, bones; 94.)
x 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; meat; 10, 12, 15.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; meat; 123-126.)
x 1981 Johannes, R.E. (DD; Palau; hunting & sale; 25, 68, 73.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; 54-63.)
x 1981a Smith, N.J.H. (TI; Brazil; history of exploitation; 184-186.)
x 1981b Smith, N.J.H. (TI; Itacoatiara, Brazil; meat US$.40/kg; 95-96.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; meat; 518.)
x * 1982a Domning, D.P. (TI, TMM; Brazil; meat, fat, hide; history of commercial exploitation, ca. 1785-1973; 101-126.)
1982 O'Donnell, D.J. (TMM; Central America)
1982 Wing & Reitz
x 1983 Bradley et al. (TMM; hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
x 1983 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Papua New Guinea; hunting & conservation; 14-15.)
x 1984b Anon. (DD; Abu Dhabi; leather used for sandals; 362.)
x * 1984b Minnegal, M. (DD; Queensland; butchering techniques; archeological site; 15-20.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; meat; 645-648.)
x * 1985 McKillop, H.I. (TMM; prehistoric Maya area, Central America; meat, fat, bone; 337-353.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TMM; Haiti; meat; "3 kinds of meat"; 234-236.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; meat, also used for shark bait; fat, hide, bone; 985, 1009-1011.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; meat; 155.)
x 1987 Finger, J. (DD; Queensland; history of oil industry; 3-5.)
1988 Shearer, W. (DD; in capt.; raising for meat proposed)
x 1988e Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; meat; 498.)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Malaysia, Singapore; meat, oil, tears, hide, tusks; 22, 24.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; meat, oil, hide, bone; "3 kinds of meat"; 291-296.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; meat, bone; 80-82.)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; meat, 80, 82, 85-86, 89; dolphin meat used as substitute, 61, 64, 86, 89.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; meat, 47-52, 66, 96-100, 114-115; oil, hide, 51, 97, 99, 114; tusks, 51; marrow, 114.)
x 1991b Brown, J.N.B. (DD; Abu Dhabi; meat; 33.)
x 1991 Fitzpatrick, J. (DD; Torres Strait; sharing of meat; m20.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; India; oil; 371.)
x 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (TMM; Belize; meat, bones, tourism; 160-161.)
1992 Correa-Viana & O'Shea (TMM; Venezuela)
1993 Faure et al.
1993 Livingston & Livingston (DD, HG, Trichechus; pop. acc.; 84-85.)
x 1993 Staub, F. (DD; Mauritius, 17th-18th centuries; meat, fat; 49.)
x 1995 Marsh et al. (DD; Palau; meat, bones; 87.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; meat of various flavors, oil, tourism; m194.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; meat; 407-409.)
x 1996 Reeves et al. (TI; Peru; meat, fat, oil, live animals, tourism; 247-248, 250-253.)
x 1996 Tan, B. (DD; China; meat, fat, oil, skin; 86.)
x 1998 Liu, Z. (DD; China; meat, teeth; m209.)
1999 Gibson, J.R. (HG)
x 1999 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Sahul Banks, Australia; shark bait; 613.)
x 2000 Mayor, A. ("Halitherium"; France; ribs used for Paleolithic tools; 166.)
2001 Jackson et al. (DD, HG; overfishing)
2002 Creswell, J. (Barbados)
2002 Jousse & Chenal-Velarde (TS; Mali; Neolithic site)
2002 Jousse et al. (DD; Akab Island, United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
2003 Rouja et al. (DD; Australia; indigenous hunting & use of fat)
x 2004 Carvajal, J. (ed.) (TMM, Puerto Rico; recipe; 100-101.)
2006 Rajamani et al. (DD; Sabah, Malaysia; indigenous use and trade)
* 2008 Daley et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; history of commercial fishery)
2009 Calvimontes, J. (TI; Brazil)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
2014 Jones, R.T. (HG; extermination)
x * n.d. Bible, The (?DD; Hebrews; Red Sea; hide.)
x v n.d. Berovides, V. (Trichechus; pop. acc.; 13.)
Ecuador ( 4 )
1854 Osculati, C. (TI)
x * 1986 Timm et al. (TI; ecology, distr., & status; 150-156.)
x 1989 Timm et al. (TI; Siona Indian hunting techniques; 1-7.)
2010 Denkinger, J. (TI; Cuyabeno Reserve; status)
Egypt ( 35 )
(SEE ALSO: Red Sea)
1867 Fraas, O.
x 1875a Owen, R. (Eotherium aegyptiacum, n.gen.n.sp.; Eoc.; 100-105.)
x 1878 Filhol, H. (Manatus Coulombi, n.sp.; Eoc.; 124-125.)
1899 Studer, T. (Wadi Natrun)
1901 Andrews, C.W.
1902 Andrews, C.W.
x 1902b Osborn, H.F. (Eosiren; Eoc.; 715.)
1903 Blanckenhorn, M.
1904 Fraas, E. (Mokattam Hills)
1905 Beadnell, H.J.L. (Fayum)
* 1906 Andrews, C.W.
1907b Abel, O.
1907 Andrews, C.W.
1908 Priem, F. (Protosiren fraasi; Eoc.)
x 1910 Woodward, A.S. (m470.)
1911 Schlosser, M.
1913a Abel, O. (Eotherium aegyptiacum; Eoc.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1948 Deraniyagala, P.E.P. ("sirs.", Olig., Libyan Desert, m15; Eosiren, Eoc., 16.)
1959 Reinhart, R.H. (Eotheroides sp. indet.; Late Eoc.)
1962 Said, R.
1963 Said, R.
1965 Said, R.
x 1967 Siegfried, P. (Eotheroides libyca; Eoc., Fayum; 165-166.)
1974 El-Khashab, B.
1974 James & Slaughter (Plioc., Wadi el-Natrun)
1974 Moustafa, Y.S. (Eotheroides libyca; Eoc., Fayum)
1974 Vondra, C.F. (Qasr el-Sagha Formation)
x 1976 Paz & Ilani (DD; 3 specimens captured & displayed; 74.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Protosiren n.sp.; Late Eoc.; 55-56, 59.)
x 1986 Fleagle et al. (unidentified sir.; Olig., Jebel Qatrani Formation; 8-9.)
x * 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (stratigraphy, age, & paleoenvironments of sirs.; Eoc., Mokattam Hills & Fayum, 1, 7, 11, 20-21, 23-24, 33, 35, 40-41, 43-44, 49, 63, 71, 74-77, 79; Olig., Fayum, 67, 77.)
x 2009 Peters et al. (dugongids; Late Eoc., Wadi Al-Hitan; taphonomy & preservation; 294, 296-7, 299-301.)
* 2010 Van Vliet & Abu el Khair (Middle or Late Eoc.; Qattara Depression, Egypt)
* 2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Late Eoc., Fayum; Eotheroides clavigerum, n.sp.; Eotheroides sandersi, n.sp.; Eosiren libyca; Eosiren stromeri; Protosiren smithae)
Embryology and Ontogeny ( 66 )
(SEE ALSO: Age Determination; Growth Rates; Teratology)
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (Trichechus; nails, hair, 284; atlas, m308.)
1822 Albers, C.F.
x 1851 Barkow, H.C.L. (DD; nerves & muscles; 119-122.)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TM; fetus; nails; m99.)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (TI; fetus; 2: 152-153.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (TI; fetus; 2: 190.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. (TI; fetus; 105-106, 108-109, 112-114.)
x 1885 Ryder, J.A. (flukes & hind limbs; 515-519.)
x 1887b Baur, G. (supernumerary phalanges; 840.)
x 1889a Leboucq, H. (DD; nail; 190-192.)
1891a Kükenthal, W.
1894 Turner, W.
x 1896 Kükenthal, W. (TM; embryonic dentition; 513-526.)
x 1904 Freund, L. (DD; manus; 364-394.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; nostrils, 54; eyes, 62-63.)
x * 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; color, 568; hair, 570-571; snout, 577-578; ear, mammae, 579.)
x 1907 Wilder, B.G. (TI; fetus; 663.)
x 1908b Freund, L. (DD; bones & cartilages of nasal region; 254-256.)
x 1908 Wilder, B.G. (TI; fetus; 825.)
* 1909 Dilg, C. (TI; skull)
x 1910 Lull, R.S. (flukes & hind limbs; 152-153.)
x 1912a Matthes, E. (Trichechus; ears; 598.)
1912 Turner, W.
x * 1914a Freund, L. (DD; skeleton; 353-386, pl. 16.)
1915 Matthes, E.
x 1923 Kostanecki, K. (TI; cecum & umbilical arteries; 273-276.)
x 1924b Petit, G. (kidney; 245-246.)
x 1924c Petit, G. (kidney; 2197-2200.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; lips; 90.)
x * 1931 Sickenberg, O. (retardation of ossification & suture closure, etc.; 412-417, 428-431.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
1934 Genschow, J. (olfactory organs)
x * 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (TM; fetus & placentation; 159-178, pls. 1-7.)
1937 De Beer, G.R. (skull)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; fusion of cranial sutures, 331, 341; tusks, 331-339; cheek teeth, 339-340.)
x 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 2-8, 14-15.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 2-6, 10-13, pl. 1.)
1945 Matthes, E.
x * 1955 Dekeyser, P.L. (Trichechus; teeth; 921-922.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; fetus; 201.)
1966 Kaiser & Bartone
x 1969 Robineau, D. (ear region; m26.)
x * 1973 Mitchell, J. (DD; Australia; age determination; 1-23.)
x 1974 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; India; skeleton; 174-182.)
x 1974 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; cranial allometry; 249-257.)
x 1975 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; size & weight allometry; 159-167.)
x 1976 Spain et al. (DD; Queensland; cranial allometry; 495-496.)
1978 Arvy, L.
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Dusisiren jordani; 68.)
x 1978 Mitchell, J. (DD; dentition & age determination; 317-348.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (Trichechus; ontogenetic skeletal variation; 97-99, 106.)
x 1986 Watson & Bonde (TML; congenital flipper malformations; 294-301.)
x 1987 Mossman, H.W. (sir. fetal membranes; 267-270.)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (TML; brain & body size, fusion of cranial sutures; 534-543.)
x 1991a Domning, D.P. (DD; pelvic bones; ontogenetic variation; 311-316.)
1995 Domning, D.P. (DD; evolution; dental morphology & possible neoteny)
x 2000 Fagone et al. (TML; pelvic bones; sexual & ontogenetic variation; 177-181.)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; diaphragm & transverse septum; 45, 48-49.)
2006 Shapiro et al. (Trichechus; pelvic reduction; genetic origins)
2007 Buchholtz et al. (TML; vertebral column)
2009 Schwarz & Runge (TM; age estimation; body length; Bayesian analysis)
2009 Silva et al. (TMM; hematology; age variations)
x 2010 Hautier et al. (Trichechus; 7th vertebra predicted to be developmentally cervical; 18906.)
2011 Varela-L. et al. (cervical vertebrae, homeotic mutations)
* 2012 Hoson et al. (Trichechus; fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
2012 Buchholtz et al. (differentiation of cervical vertebrae & muscularization of diaphragm)
Endocrinology ( 24 )
x 1820 Diard & Duvaucel (DD; thymus; 159.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; thymus; 178.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (DD; location of thyroid gland; 38.)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TM; thymus; 93.)
1872a Murie, J.
x 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; thyroid gland; 193.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (iodine & thyroid gland; 358.)
x * 1931 Sickenberg, O. (effects of thyroid & hypophysis on ossification & growth; 417-442.)
* 1938 Oldham et al. (TI; hypophysis; 27-32.)
1940 Wislocki, G.B.
x * 1942b Fawcett, D.W. (TML; thyroid gland & pachyostosis; 285-287, 304-307.)
* 1945 Hill, W.C.O.
x 1951 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; pituitary & adrenal glands; 57-62, pls. 1-2.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; thyroid, adrenal, pituitary, thymus; 201.)
1965 Hanström, B. (Trichechus; hypophysis)
1967 Cave & Aumonier (DD; thymus & thyroid gland)
* 1969b Harrison, R.J.
1975 Ralph, C.L. (pineal gland)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; adrenal & thyroid glands; "pineal absent"; 42, 46.)
x 1980 Arvy, L. (thyroid malfunction as supposed cause of high bone density in sirs.; 312.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TML; adrenal & thyroid weights; 60, 63.)
x 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (hypothyroidism & pachyostosis; 2107, 2117-2118.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TM; corpora lutea; 301, 303.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; osmoregulation; 449-457.)
England: SEE Britain ( 0 )
Environmental Contaminants: SEE Pollution, Effects of ( 0 )
Eocene ( 112 )
x 1849 Gibbes, R.W. (Manatus; ?Eoc., ?South Carolina; 193.)
x 1850 Gibbes, R.W. (Manatus; South Carolina; 67-68.)
x 1855 Owen, R. (Prorastomus sirenoides, n.gen.n.sp.; Jamaica; 541.)
1858 Emmons, E. (North Carolina)
x 1875a Owen, R. (Eotherium aegyptiacum, n.gen.n.sp.; Egypt; 100-105.)
x 1878 Filhol, H. (Manatus Coulombi, n.sp.; Egypt; 124-125.)
1884 Flower & Garson (Georgia)
x 1887 Flot, L. ("Halitherium n. sp."; ?Eoc., France; 138.)
x 1902b Osborn, H.F. (Eosiren; Egypt; 715.)
x 1906 Almera, D.J. (Halitherium; Spain; 379.)
1911 Koch, A. (Hungary)
x 1932 Müllerried, F.K.G. (indeterminate sir.; "Olig.", Mexico; 71-73.)
1938 Lapparent, A.F. de ("Halitherium"; Eoc., Taulanne)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (Sirenavus hungaricus, n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Hungary; 146-147, 156.)
1944 Mottl, M. (Hungary)
1944 Tulogdy, J.
1946 Richard, M. ("Eotherium sp."; Late Eoc., France)
x 1951 Vernon, R.O. (indet. sir.; Middle Eoc., Levy Co., Florida; m110.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (indeterminate sir.; Java; 610.)
x 1952 Macfadyen, W.A. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eoc., Somalia; 348.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (indeterminate sir.; Early Eoc., Hungary; 273-277.)
x 1953 Maldonado-Koerdell, M. (indeterminate sir.; "Olig.", Mexico; 146-148.)
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. (Halitherium; Spain; 25.)
1956 Marcet-Riba, J. (Spain)
1959 Farrés & Ramirez (Spain)
1959 Reinhart, R.H. (Eotheroides sp. indet.; Egypt)
1961 Farrés, F. (Spain)
1962 Farrés, F. (Spain)
1963 Said, R. (Egypt)
x 1964 Siler, W.L. (indeterminate sir.; Middle Eoc., Alabama; 1108.)
x 1965 Arata & Jackson (indeterminate sirs.; Alabama; 175-176.)
1965 Balogh & Rónai (Hungary)
x 1965 Savage, R.J.G. (Middle Eoc., Libya; 91.)
x 1966 Piccoli, G. (Prototherium cf. veronense; Priabonian stratotype, Italy; 349-350.)
1967 Grigorescu, D. (Romania)
1967 Reguant, S. (Spain)
x 1967 Siegfried, P. (Eotheroides libyca; Egypt; 166.)
1968a Simons, E.L.
1969 Bartolomei, G.
x 1969 Freudenthal, M. (indeterminate sirs.; France; 64-65.)
x 1969 Voorhies, M.R. ("sir." [actually entelodont] tooth; Late Eoc., Georgia; 93-94.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. ("?Halitherium sp."; Romania; 1185.)
x 1970 Pickering, S.M., Jr. ("Eosiren sp.?"; Georgia; m20.)
x 1971 Savage, R.J.G. (Middle Eoc., Libya; 219-220.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (indeterminate sir.; Romania; 71.)
1974 Moustafa, Y.S. (Eotheroides libyca; Egypt)
x 1974 Sanders, A.E. (South Carolina; m8.)
1974 Vondra, C.F. (Qasr el-Sagha Formation, Egypt)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Florida; 262, 264-265.)
x 1977 Bizzarini et al. (Prototherium veronense; Late Eoc., Italy; 1-15.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (Paralitherium tarkanyense, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Hungary; 349-367.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (indeterminate sir.; Somali, India; 218.)
x 1978 Kordos, L. (Protosiren cf. fraasi; Middle Eoc., Hungary; 288-289.)
1979 Sahni, A.
x 1980 Kordos, L. (Eotheroides; Middle Eoc., Hungary; 385-397.)
x 1980 Sahni & Kumar (Ishatherium subathuensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Eoc., India; 132-135.)
x 1980 Sahni et al. ("sir."; Early Eoc., India; 270-271.)
x * 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (review of worldwide sir. record; 1-69.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (Florentinoameghinia; Early Eoc., Argentina; 1-10.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (Prototherium intermedium, n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy; 95-99.)
1984 Nicorici & Popovici
1988 Fuchs, H. (Romania)
x 1990 Donovan et al. (Prorastomus sirenoides; Middle Eoc., Jamaica; new specimen; 660-662.)
x 1990 Ivany et al. (Protosiren; Middle Eoc., Florida; seagrass community; 244-258.)
1990 Westgate, J.W. (Texas)
x 1991 Basu et al. (?Early Eoc., India; 9.)
x 1991 Kumar, K. (Ishatherium; India; Ypresian in age; 236.)
1992 Galobart et al.
x * 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphy, age, & paleoenvironments of sirs.; 1, 7, 11, 20-21, 23-24, 33, 35, 40-41, 43-44, 49, 63, 71, 74-77, 79.)
x 1993 Thewissen, J.G.M. (indet. sir.; Kuldana Formation, Pakistan; 125-127.)
x 1994 Das & Basu ("Eotheroides waghapadarensis"; Middle Eoc., India; 5.)
x 1996 Miller & Donovan (Early Eoc., Jamaica; 38, 46.)
x 1997 Gingerich et al. (Protosiren sattaensis; Pakistan; 57, 69, 71, 75.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Prototherium; Spain; 114.)
x 1997 Portell, R.W. (Prorastomus & new prorastomids; Jamaica; pop. acc.; 5-7.)
1998 Gingerich et al. (Middle Eoc., Pakistan)
1998 Gómez, G.
1998 As-Saruri et al. (Middle Eoc., Yemen)
x 1998 Goodwin et al. (?prorastomid; Middle Eoc., Israel; 813-815.)
1998 Gómez, G. (Spain)
x 1999 As-Saruri et al. (indet. ?sir.; Middle Eoc., Yemen; 448.)
1999 Astibia et al. (Spain)
x 1999 Whybrow & Clements (indet. ?sir.; Middle Eoc., Yemen; m462.)
x 2000 Cappetta et al. (indeterminate sir. ["Halitherium sp."]; Late Eoc., Jordan; 91.)
2001 Portell et al. (prorastomids; Jamaica)
x 2001c Domning, D.P. (Pezosiren portelli, n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Jamaica; 625-627.)
2001 Sagne, C. (Halitherium taulannense, n.sp.; Late Eoc., France; 471-476.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (Protosiren eothene, n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Pakistan; 79-87.)
2005 Astibia et al. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eocene, Navarre, Spain; taphonomy)
2005 Bizzotto, B. (Prototherium spp.; Italy)
2006 Clementz et al. (Eoc. sirs.; stable isotopes)
* 2006 Bajpai et al. (Kutch)
2006 Astibia et al. (indeterminate dugongids; Middle Eoc., Spain)
2007 Donovan et al. (Pezosiren portelli; Jamaica)
2007 Floquet et al. (Halitherium taulannense; Late Eoc.; Taulanne, France; taphonomy)
2008 Buffrénil et al. (Prototherium monserratense & undetermined dugongids; Middle Eoc., Spain; pachyosteosclerosis)
* 2009 Bajpai et al. (Ashokia antiqua, n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc.; Kutch, India)
* 2009 Samonds et al. (Eotheroides lambondrano, n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Madagascar)
x 2009 Peters et al. (dugongids; Late Eoc., Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt; taphonomy & preservation; 294, 296-7, 299-301.)
2010 Astibia et al. (indeterminate dugongids; early Middle Eoc., Spain)
2010 Van Vliet & Abu el Khair (Middle or Late Eoc.; Qattara Depression, Egypt)
2010 Balaguer, J. (middle Eoc.; Tona, Spain)
2010 Anderson et al. (indeterminate sir.; Late Eoc., Georgia)
2010 Beatty & Geisler (Protosiren sp.; late Middle Eoc., South Carolina)
* 2011 Clementz & Sewall (Eocene sirs.; stable isotopes; global climate)
2011 Boschele et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Late Eoc., Italy)
* 2012 Hautier et al. (Prorastomidae indet.; Middle Eoc., Senegal)
* 2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt; Eotheroides clavigerum, n.sp.; Eotheroides sandersi, n.sp.; Eosiren libyca; Eosiren stromeri; Protosiren smithae)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (new primitive sir.; early or middle Eoc., Tunisia; ear region, comp. w/ Prorastomus sirenoides)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (Protosiren cf. fraasi; Middle Eoc., Germany)
2014 Zouhri et al. (Eosiren sp.; Late Eoc., Morocco)
2014 Gingerich & Cappetta (Protosirenidae, Dugongidae; lower Middle Eoc., Togo)
Eosiren abeli Sickenberg, 1934 ( 3 )
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (n.sp.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; ?syn. of Protosiren fraasi; 71, 75-76.)
x 2004 Uhen, M.D. (comp. w/ Dorudon; ribs & buoyancy; 158-159.)
Eosiren Andrews, 1902 ( 25 )
x * 1902 Andrews, C.W. (n.gen.; Late Eoc., Egypt; 293-295.)
x 1902b Osborn, H.F. (phyletic significance; 715.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51-52.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; 384-385, 391.)
x 1916 Lucas, F.A. (m318.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (m27; tooth formula, 28.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; m306.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (m18.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 423, 471-473, 480-481, 491, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 152, 154, pl. 6.)
x 1941 Pycraft, W.P. (m328.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (m12.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Eotheroides; 135.)
x 1948 Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Egypt; 16.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (syn. of Eotheroides; 209.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 134.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L.
x 1970 Pickering, S.M., Jr. ("Eosiren sp.?"; Eoc., Georgia; m20.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides; m575.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Eotheroides, 378-379; pelvis, 392.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (brain fissures; m265.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 354-355.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; m84.)
2014 Zouhri et al. (Late Eoc., Morocco)
Eosiren fraasi (Abel, 1907) Schlosser in von Zittel and Schlosser, 1923 ( 2 )
(= Protosiren fraasi)
* 1923 Zittel & Schlosser (n.comb.)
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (nomenclature; comp. w/ Eotherium majus; 432.)
Eosiren imenti Domning, Gingerich, Simons, and Ankel-Simons, 1994 ( 3 )
* 1994 Domning et al. (n.sp.; Early Olig., Egypt; 89-108.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; m409.)
Eosiren libyca Andrews, 1902 ( 16 )
x * 1902 Andrews, C.W. (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Egypt; 293-295.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 473.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
1936 Osborn, H.F.
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (comp. w/ Eotherium majus; 429, 432-433.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m152.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m209.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1967 Siegfried, P. (syn. of Eotheroides; hind limb; 165.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. ("E. libycum"; m387, m395.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 360-361.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; 20-21, 23, 33, 41, 75-76.)
x 1992 Thewissen & Domning (m495.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; m409.)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt)
Eosiren stromeri (Sickenberg, 1934) Kordos, 1977 ( 3 )
x * 1977 Kordos, L. (n.comb.; comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 360-361.)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt)
Eotherium abeli Sickenberg, 1934 ( 5 )
(= Eosiren abeli)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. ("E[otherium]. (Eosiren) abeli", nomen nudum; pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 414.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (n.sp.)
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (m429, m432.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 16-17, 21.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. ("Eotherium (Eosiren) abeli"; Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; ?syn. of Protosiren fraasi; 71, 75-76.)
Eotherium aegyptiacum Owen, 1875 ( 20 )
(= Eotheroides aegyptiacum)
x * 1875a Owen, R. (n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Egypt; cranial endocast; 100-105, pl. 3.)
x 1878 Filhol, H. (comp. w/ Manatus Coulombi; 124-125.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker ("E. egyptiacum"; morphology; 224.)
x 1902 Andrews, C.W. (comp. w/ Eosiren libyca; 293.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 50.)
* 1913a Abel, O. (skull)
x 1924 Hay, O.P. ("E. aegypticum"; tooth formula; m3.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 411, 414.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m473.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (comp. w/ E. majus; 429-434.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m152.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of study, 104; m108.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 16-17, 21.)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (ear region; m30.)
x 1976 Kordos, L. (m282.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides aegyptiacum; m575.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (foramen ovale; m273.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; 1, 71, 74-76.)
Eotherium libycum (Andrews, 1902) Sickenberg, 1934 ( 5 )
(= Eosiren libyca)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 408-409, 411, 414; tooth replacement, 429.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 17, 19, 21.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (nomenclature; 209.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 12.)
Eotherium majus Zdansky, 1938 ( 4 )
x * 1938 Zdansky, O. (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Egypt; 430-434.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (considered probably invalid; 575-576.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 38, 58.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; ?syn. of Eotheroides aegyptiacum; 71, 75-76.)
Eotherium markgrafi Abel, 1913 ( 3 )
(nomen nudum)
* 1913a Abel, O. (nomen nudum; comp. w/ E. aegyptiacum)
1934b Sickenberg, O. (said to be not based on any known specimen; 41.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (considered nomen nudum; 576.)
Eotherium Owen, 1875 (non Leidy, 1853) ( 25 )
(= Eotheroides)
1874 Murie, J.
x * 1875a Owen, R. (n.gen.; Middle Eoc., Egypt; 100-105.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m376-378.)
x * 1899 Palmer, T.S. (replacement name Eotheroides proposed; 494.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; 384-386, 388, 392.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (m27.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; m306.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. (m256.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (m18.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m98.)
x 1930a Simpson, G.G. (pop. acc.; 46.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Eotheroides; m423, 471.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition comp. w/ Dugong; 6.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m152.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, J. (m12.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 16-17, 20.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Eotheroides; 135.)
1946 Richard, M. (Late Eoc., France)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (syn. of Eotheroides; 209.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 134.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides; m575.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Eotheroides, 378-379; pelvis, 391-392.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. ("Halitherium (Eotherium)" [= Prototherium]; Eoc., Spain; 114.)
Eotherium stromeri Sickenberg, 1934 ( 6 )
(= Eosiren stromeri)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (nomen nudum; pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 414.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (n.sp.)
x * 1938 Zdansky, O. (m429, m432.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ "Metaxytherium n. sp."; 108.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 17, 21.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 38, 58.)
Eotheroides abeli (Sickenberg, 1934) Kordos, 1977 ( 4 )
(= Eosiren abeli)
x * 1977 Kordos, L. (n.comb.; comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m575.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 387, 389, 397.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 38, 43, 57-58.)
Eotheroides aegyptiacum (Owen, 1875) Trouessart, 1905 ( 17 )
* 1904-05 Trouessart, E.-L. (n.comb.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (humerus; m233-234.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 65.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 473-474.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m207, 210.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (ear region; m30.)
x * 1977 Kordos, L. ("E. aegyptiacus"; comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & occurrence in Africa; 575.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 387, 389, 397.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (possibly ancestral to trichechids; 600.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 19, 36-38, 47, 52, 57, 59.)
1985 Kozawa, Y. ("Eosiren aegypticam")
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 360.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; 1, 11, 74-77.)
x 1992 Thewissen & Domning (character states; 495, 503.)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Eoc., Egypt)
Eotheroides babiae Bajpai, Thewissen, Kapur, Tiwari, and Sahni, 2006 ( 1 )
* 2006 Bajpai et al. (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Kutch, India)
Eotheroides clavigerum Zalmout and Gingerich, 2012 ( 1 )
* 2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (n.sp.; Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt)
Eotheroides coulombi (Filhol, 1878) Trouessart, 1905 ( 1 )
(= Eotheroides aegyptiacum)
* 1904-05 Trouessart, E.-L. (n.comb.)
Eotheroides lambondrano Samonds, Zalmout, Irwin, Krause, Rogers, and Raharivony, 2009 ( 1 )
* 2009 Samonds et al. (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Madagascar)
Eotheroides libycum (Andrews, 1902) Reinhart, 1951 ( 10 )
(= Eosiren libyca)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. ("E. libyca", n.comb.; m209.)
x * 1967 Siegfried, P. (femur; 165-172, pl. 17.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 72-73, 75, 77.)
x * 1977 Kordos, L. ("E. libycus"; comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. ("E. libyca"; m576.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 387-389, 396-397.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 30, 38, 41, 57-59.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (comp. w/ Prototherium; 102, 106-109.)
x 1986 Domning et al. (m37-39.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (comp. w/ Halitherium & Metaxytherium; 223-224.)
Eotheroides Palmer, 1899 ( 27 )
x * 1899 Palmer, T.S. (name proposed as replacement for Eotherium; 494.)
x 1930a Simpson, G.G. (pop. acc.; 46.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 423, 462-463, 471-473, 480, 484, 491-492, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Sirenavus, 149; in classification, 152, 154, pl. 6; name Masrisiren proposed for one specimen, 152.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (syn. of Eotherium; 104.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m208-209, 211; nomenclature, 209.)
1959 Reinhart, R.H.
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m65.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m515.)
x 1969 Voorhies, M.R. (comp. w/ tooth from Georgia; m94.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (dental formula; m4.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & occurrence in Africa; 574-579.)
x 1979 Tassy, P. (comp. w/ Moeritherium; 87.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (Middle Eoc., Hungary; 385-397, pls. 1-2.)
x 1980 Sahni & Kumar (comp. w/ Ishatherium; 133-134.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 8, 37, 57-58, 62.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (distr.; 378-380.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 7-9.)
x * 1983 Bizzotto, B. (syn. of Prototherium; 100, 105-111.)
1983 Kordos, L.
x 1984 Rainey et al. (dugongid affinities questioned; 587.)
x 1985a Kordos, L. (Hungary; m314.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (skull foramina; 268-269, 272.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (brain & body size; 536, 539.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; 82-83.)
Eotheroides sandersi Zalmout and Gingerich, 2012 ( 1 )
* 2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (n.sp.; Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt)
Eotheroides stromeri (Sickenberg, 1934) Domning, 1978 ( 2 )
(= Eosiren stromeri)
x * 1978c Domning, D.P. (n.comb.; m576.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
Eotheroides waghapadarensis Das and Basu, 1994 ( 1 )
(nomen nudum; = Ashokia antiqua)
x * 1994 Das & Basu (n.gen.n.sp.; nomen nudum; Middle Eoc., India; 5.)
Eotheroidinae Kretzoi, 1941 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. ("Eotherioidinae", new subfamily; 154.)
Europe ( 18 )
(SEE ALSO: Austria; Belgium; Britain; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Malta; Mediterranean Sea; Netherlands; Portugal; Romania; Russia; Spain; Switzerland)
x 1784 Mayer, J. (fossil "Mannatus"; Czechoslovakia; 262-263.)
x 1834 Keferstein, C. (Manatus fossilis; France, Bohemia; m2: 217.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (summ. of sir. occurrences; 208-210.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (various sirs.; 104-105.)
* 1920 Depéret & Roman (review)
1938 Suklje, F. (Yugoslavia)
x 1949 Thenius, E. (Thalattosiren petersi; Czechoslovakia; 162-163.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (Thalattosiren petersi; Mioc., Czechoslovakia; 33-36, 109-113.)
1976 Mchedlidze, G.A. (Black & Caspian Seas)
1976 Rabeder & Steininger (Olig. & Mioc., Central Paratethys)
1977 Radwanski, A. (Poland)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (utility of sirs. in stratigraphic correlation; 183.)
x 1991 Czyzewska & Radwanski (Thalattosiren; Middle Mioc., Poland; 184-185, 188.)
1992 Wolsan, M. (Thalattosiren; Middle Mioc., Poland)
2002 Sabol & Holec (Mioc., Slovakia)
x 2006? Kriznar, Matija (Metaxytherium ?krahuletzi; Slovenia; 26.)
2008 Gregorová & Zágoršek (indeterminate sir. rib; Middle Mioc., Czech Republic)
2013 Prista et al. (Euro-North African sirs.; extinction)
Excretion and Defecation ( 31 )
(SEE ALSO: Salinity Tolerance; Urogenital System)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TS; feces; m99.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; in capt.; constipation; 460-461.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, 52, 57-58; Trichechus, 57-58.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; in capt.; feces; 228.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; flatulence, feces, 127, 131-132; urination, 128; apparently bloody feces, 177.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt.; 199-200.)
x * 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 4.)
x * 1963 Hofmeister, M. (?TMM; in capt.; 12.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS; feces; 48.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; floating feces; 80.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt.; m221.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; feces; 10-11, 16-17.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 92-93; flatus, regurgitation, 93, 95.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; in capt.; urine values; 3, 6.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD: in capt.; soft, floating feces; 270.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (Trichechus; diarrhea of calves on powdered milk formula; 21.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD: in capt.; soft, floating feces; 201.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; in capt.; hard feces of calf cured with mineral oil; 106.)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; in capt.; flatulence & loose stools while on artificial formula with lactose; 265.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; production of feces while fasting; 61-62.)
x 1983 Gallivan et al. (TI; in capt.; 2-3-week passage rate of swallowed transmitters; 256.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (TML; in capt.; feces; 6-day passage rate; 176-177.)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best (TI; in capt.; 5-9-day passage rate; 554, 556.)
x * 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (DD; in capt.; digesta passage rate, 119-127; defecation, 120.)
x 1996 Tikel et al. (DD; recovery of DNA from feces; 456-457.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; osmoregulation, 449-457; urination frequency decreased when out of salt water, 452, 456.)
2003 Williams et al. (TML; Florida; feces fed on by sharksuckers; 1180-1181.)
2005 Lanyon, Smith & Carrick (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; reproductive steroids in feces)
2005 Larkin et al. (TML; fecal testosterone concentrations)
2008 Tsukinowa et al. (DD; in capt., Toba, Japan; fecal microbiota)
2009 Muschett et al. (TM; Panama; fecal sampling for DNA analysis)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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